This is a list of canard aircraft, having a foreplane in front of the main wing instead of a conventional tailplane. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Aircraft tagged with "CANARD"
ASL monoplane No. Several variants. The pilot was accommodated inside a fuselage and withdrew their legs through a hatch in the underside. Beltrame Colibri. Besson canard. Curtiss-Wright XP Ascender.
Freedom Aviation Phoenix. Modified Dassault Mirage 5 airframes. MacCready Gossamer Condor. MacCready Gossamer Albatross. Messerschmitt P. Proposed for the Emergency Fighter Program . North American XB Valkyrie. Peterson Kenai. Royal Aircraft Factory S. Sukhoi Su MKI.Canard Efficiency Myths Canard owners like to claim their aircraft are more efficient than conventional designs.
Their technical argument is that the forward wing canard creates lift rather than a downforce like conventional tails. The downforce on a conventional tail must be carried by the wing, so for aircraft of equal weight, canards incur less induced drag. They also point out that canard aircraft cruise faster than similar conventional designs with the same engine.
Canard detractors aka aerodynamicists claim that canards are not efficient at all. For a given payload and landing speed, canard aircraft require larger wings and have higher drag. This means the wing never achieves its maximum lift coefficient.
With all the disadvantages, the reader must wonder why anyone designs or builds a canard aircraft. And how is it possible that some canard aircraft are faster than conventional designs with the same engine? The answer requires further explanation of the canard configuration. That reduces the need for a larger wing. The flap-less wing is sized for landing speeds and is literally too large at cruise speeds; the oversize wing has no problem creating adequate lift at higher speeds, even with the downwash.
When the canard produces lift, downwash on the wing restores some semblance of the desired elliptical lift distribution for the wing and canard combined.
These redeeming qualities allow Long-EZ type aircraft to achieve better performance than their inherent disadvantages would imply. However, the biggest reason for their apparent efficiency is that the Long-EZ, Cozy and E-Racer are point designs optimized for high cruise speeds. They use supine seating to reduce frontal area and they have retractable nose gear. The canards cruise 10 to 15 knots faster and are more fuel efficient than conventional designs only because they give up performance in other areas.
An optimized conventional aircraft designed to equivalent standards could achieve the same or better results. All the studies conclude that canard aircraft are less efficient when mission requirements are held equal. Fortunately for us, the difference is small and mission requirements for homebuilt aircraft can be unique. Canard designs can still be optimized for better performance. Add the inherent safety of a stall and spin resistant design and most people will understand why canards remain the most interesting aircraft on the ramp!
Welcome What's a Canard?A canard can serve two purposes; it can improve aircraft control, which you often see on combat aircraft. It also can contribute to lift, replacing the horizontal stabilizer and - theoretically - reducing overall drag. How does a lifting canard reduce drag? It decreases the total amount of lift that your aircraft needs to produce, which decreases drag. However, it does this at a cost - a canard can be destabilizing and decrease stall recoverability. Most aircraft use a horizontal stabilizer on the tail to maintain stability, like on a Cessna With the center of gravity ahead of the wing's center of lift, the aircraft wants to pitch nose-down.
However, the horizontal stabilizer on the tail acts as a mini-wing, generating lift downwards called tail down force and pitching the nose back up. There's a downside here - the wing needs to generate enough lift to oppose both the weight and the stabilizer's tail down force.
So, if the aircraft weighs lbs. That extra lbs. The canard is essentially moves your horizontal tail up to your nose, and places the wing's center of lift behind the center of gravity. To balance the natural nose down tendency, the canard generates an upward lifting force - which helps oppose weight. If your aircraft weighs lbs. The Cessna has to generate total pounds of lift to fly lbs.
The Long-EZ should have less drag, which means more performance. If canards were that simple, every aircraft would use them. However, aerodynamics are never that simple.
Things get complicated in a stall. On a Cessnaif the wing stalls before the tail, you'll still have elevator controllability to pitch down. If the tail stalls before the wing, the aircraft will naturally pitch down.
In either case, stall recovery is natural. However, if your aircraft has a canard instead of a tail-mounted horizontal stabilizer, you're in real trouble if the wing stalls first.
In this case, the center of gravity would drop the wing and tail, pitching the nose up. The aircraft now enters a deeper stall and becomes unrecoverable. So, how do you solve this problem? You need to make sure that the wing is always further away from the critical angle of attack than the canard. You can accomplish this by using a larger wing on the aircraft.A canard is an aeronautical arrangement wherein a small forewing or foreplane is placed forward of the main wing of a fixed-wing aircraft.
The term "canard" may be used to describe the aircraft itself, the wing configurationor the foreplane. The term "canard" arose from the appearance of the Santos-Dumont bis ofwhich was said to be reminiscent of a duck canard in French with its neck stretched out in flight.
Despite the use of a canard surface on the first powered aeroplane, the Wright Flyer ofcanard designs were not built in quantity until the appearance of the Saab Viggen jet fighter in The aerodynamics of the canard configuration are complex and require careful analysis. Rather than use the conventional tailplane configuration found on most aircraft, an aircraft designer may adopt the canard configuration to reduce the main wing loading, to better control the main wing airflow, or to increase the aircraft's maneuverability, especially at high angles of attack or during a stall.
The Wright Brothers began experimenting with the foreplane configuration around Their first kite included a front surface for pitch control and they adopted this configuration for their first Flyer. They were suspicious of the aft tail because Otto Lilienthal had been killed in a glider with one. The Wrights realised that a foreplane would tend to destabilise an aeroplane but expected it to be a better control surface, in addition to being visible to the pilot in flight.
Many pioneers initially followed the Wrights' lead. For example, the Santos-Dumont bis aeroplane of had no "tail", but a box kite -like set of control surfaces in the front, pivoting on a universal joint on the fuselage's extreme nose, making it capable of incorporating both yaw and pitch control.
The Fabre Hydravion of was the first floatplane to fly and had a foreplane. Some, including the Wrights, experimented with both fore and aft planes on the same aircraft, now known as the three surface configuration. Afterfew canard types would be produced for many decades.
In W. Evans commented that "the Canard type model has practically received its death-blow so far as scientific models are concerned.
The C 1 was a failure. First flown inthe experimental Focke-Wulf F 19 "Ente" duck was more successful. Two examples were built and one of them continued flying until These were attempts at using the canard configuration to give advantages in areas such as performance, armament disposition or pilot view, but no production aircraft were completed.
The Shinden was ordered into production "off the drawing board" but hostilities ceased before any other than prototypes had flown. It was reportedly a favorite among MiG OKB test pilots for its docile, slow-speed handling characteristics and flew for some years, being used as a testbed during development of the swept wing of the conventional layout MiG jet fighter. With the arrival of the jet age and supersonic flight, American designers, notably North American Aviationbegan to experiment with supersonic canard delta designs, with some such as the North American XB Valkyrie and the Soviet equivalent Sukhoi T-4 flying in prototype form.Playing Card Canard Glider
But the stability and control problems encountered prevented widespread adoption. In the Swedish company Saab patented a delta-winged design which overcame the earlier problems, in what has become known as the close-coupled canard.
The success of this aircraft spurred many designers, and canard surfaces sprouted on a number of types derived from the popular Dassault Mirage delta-winged jet fighter. The close-coupled canard delta remains a popular configuration for combat aircraft. The Viggen also inspired the American Burt Rutan to create a two-seater homebuilt canard delta design, accordingly named VariViggen and flown in Rutan then abandoned the delta wing as unsuited to such light aircraft.
These designs were not only successful and built in large numbers but were radically different from anything seen before. Static canard designs can have complex interactions in airflow between the canard and the main wing, leading to issues with stability and behaviour in the stall. The development of fly-by-wire and artificial stability towards the end of the century opened the way for computerized controls to begin turning these complex effects from stability concerns into maneuverability advantages.
This approach produced a new generation of military canard designs. The Dassault Rafale multirole fighter first flew infollowed by the Saab Gripen first to enter service inthe Eurofighter Typhoon in and the Chinese Chengdu J in Orders with Kits are normally shipped via Priority Mail at next mail pick-up. Small accessory items, ordered without a kit, are sent 1st Class Mail and generally have a normal three to four day delivery. This kit includes materials to build up to 4 conventional gliders as well as instructions to experiment with optional canard configured design.
It contains thorough instructions, a sanding fixture, a two-sided sanding bar and two simple launch handles with FAI Tan Super Sport Rubber. It features specially selected balsa wood that is laser-cut for precision, a new special foam for more durable and flexible trailing edge flaps.
Thes planes can be built with no or minimal sanding, however instructions and materials are provided to lighten parts by sanding for championship results. Detailed instructions for building and flying are included. Finished gliders measure 28 cm wingspan with 45 cm long Carbon Fiber tube for the fuselage. Excess lift provided by a wing that flies well at low speed could cause a glider to loop upward during a hard launch. Flexible flaps allow the trailing edge to lift and straighten, reducing lift during the high velocity launch.
A removable wing has been incorporated that allows easy incidence adjustment as well as more damage resistance in the event of a hard crash. For practice flying, tiny dental rubber bands hold the wing securely into position included but will need to be replaced with masking tape or glued into place for competition flying because of current competition rules.
This is an entirely NEW kit that utilizes carbon fiber rods for key components to reduce warpage issues, increase aerodynamic efficiency, increase strength but still allow building to minimum weight.
It has innovative adjustment mechanisms to allow for quick and accurate reconfiguration for flights in both directions to achieve bonus scores. The ribs are laser-cut to build completed wings that are 30 cm with an 8 cm chord. There are numerous adjustable components allowing for the ultimate in learning, experimentation and flying success! This kit will build two complete airplanes. It contains two Ikara 15 cm propellers that will need to be trimmed down to the 8 cm maximum allowable diameter and has all hardware to build top-notch competition planes.
It includes a large instruction package and full-sized drawing to provide even novice builders with the step by step construction process and a full aerodynamics lesson for insights on how to fly and achieve maximum results.
All materials are carefully selected to yield enough strength and durability yet be built close to the minimum 8 g weight requirements. Carbon Fiber Tow is included to reinforce the motor stick, along with an empty glue bottle allows mixing model cement and acetone and precision applicator tips for accurate glue application.
It is packaged with ultra-light Mylar covering and includes material for a covering frame. Custom cut rubber in 3 different widths 13 g each is also included.
This airplane will require a winder not in kit to fly long duration flights available on the TOOLS page - ratio recommended. No part of the finished wing or winglets should be wider than the maximum 30 cm in the rules. Care needs to be taken to insure outside wing ribs are inset enough so the vertical winglets and rudders are installed inside maximum dimension of the CF Rods.
This is clearly shown on the drawing but has been missed by some competitors. It includes the high-quality laser-cut balsa, foam flap material, Carbon Fiber Tube for the fuselage, clay and dental elastics to mount the wings. It contains all laser-cut parts including ribs, wing mounts and tail pieces as well as motor stick material. It also has Carbon Fiber tow for balsa motor stick reinforcement, two sizes of carbon fiber rods, and hardware bag same as in the full kit, including all plastic pieces, and misc.
It also has a roll of Mylar and two 15 cm symmetrical propellers will need to be trimmed with scissors to 8 cm. Multiple partial kits may be packaged in the same box. It can be built as a Monoplane or as a Biplane and has key components made from Carbon Fiber to reduce warpage issues, increase aerodynamic efficiency, increase strength but still allow building near minimum weight of 7 grams biplanes will be slightly heavier.The Aviafiber Canard 2FL was a one-person recreational aircraft of highly unusual design, designed and built in Switzerland during the late s and early s.
Variously described as a rigid-wing hang-glider or as a foot-launched sailplane, the Canard 2FL was the brainchild of Swiss aerodynamicist Hans Farner. Of fibreglass construction, it consisted of a tiny fuselage, just big enough to accommodate the pilot in a prone position, provided with doors in the bottom through which the pilot's legs could extend for takeoff and landing.
A large canard was fitted at the nose as the name suggestsand the main lifting surfaces were supported atop tall, V-shaped pylons which both generated lift and acted as vertical fins. Wings, pylons and canard have Wortmann FX airfoil section. Data from . From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Design and development [ edit ] Variously described as a rigid-wing hang-glider or as a foot-launched sailplane, the Canard 2FL was the brainchild of Swiss aerodynamicist Hans Farner.
The Platz glider predated the well known Rogallo designs by over two decades. But in the same decade of the s was a device that had also a high second deck: the Argabrite man-carrying device that featured a triangle undercarriage with wheels on the basebar. The Platz glider was intended to provide a cheap, easily transported, and simple to fly introduction to the increasingly popular sport.
In Germanyjust after the end of World War Ithe Versailles treaty imposed a ban on powered flight. As a result, there was a rapid increase of interest in gliding.
Platz recalled sailing a sloop rigged boat, which had been very stable upwind and capable of maintaining its course without rudder input. He reasoned that the same stability he saw in that boat might be achieved by a similarly rigged glider with a small forewing and a larger rear plane. Just as the sloop could be controlled by adjusting its jibthe glider could be controlled by foreplane trimming. After some preliminary experiments with simple paper models, Platz designed the one-man canard glider which was then named after him.
The Platz glider was built around a central, two part boom. A curved, circular cross-section steel tube reached from the nose at least as far aft as the welded sockets which received the ends of the main wing spars. A solid, circular section wood beam was inserted into this steel tube, extending it rearwards. Their inner trailing edges were directly controlled by the pilot, who sat over the central beam-wing spar joint.
They were initially hinged together at their leading edgesbut later the hinge point was moved rearwards towards the aerodynamic centre to reduce pilot load and separated only behind the hinge. Since there were no ribs, the airfoil was determined by the airflow and the pilot, as for the sloop's jib. The main wing, a single surface stretched between the spars and the extreme tail, also had its camber determined by the airflow, like the mainsail of the sloop.
With a pilot in place, the glider was then flown tethered like a kite. Platz decided that the dunes did not provide usable soaring, their next goal, after which the experiments would end. He noted that, whilst his design could not compete with the best conventional gliders, it had met the initial targets outlined above and thought it or something similar would be of great value, seemingly content to leave others to judge his design.
Data from Flight, 6 Marchp. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Platz glider Role foldaway glider National origin Germany Designer Reinhold Platz First flight February The Platz glider was a very simple, though unusual, collapsible canard glider designed and tested in Germany in the early s. Sailplanes 2nd revised ed. Fokker - Aircraft builders to the World. London: Jane's Publishing Company, Ltd.
XVI no. Fokker: the creative years. London: Putnam. Categories : Canard aircraft s German sailplanes.
What Are Canards, And Why Don't More Aircraft Have Them?
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